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固态厌氧发酵生产沼气技术基础研发与工程应用进展

张光义, 李望良, 张聚伟, 余剑, 汪印, 许光文
(中国科学院过程工程研究所 多相复杂系统国家重点实验室, 北京 100190)

摘 要:概述了固态厌氧发酵技术基础尤其是影响因素方面的研究进展,论述了固态厌氧发酵生产沼气的底物预处理技术,介绍了工艺研发现状,探讨了一些典型工程实例。结果显示,固态厌氧发酵效果严重依赖过程调控和底物预处理;尽管高温、两段工艺是研发的热点,但当前工程实践的首选是相对成熟的常温、单段工艺。开发基于生化反应的动力学模型和培育特种、高效菌种是固态厌氧发酵技术基础研究的重点,而应用研发更注重针对性的预处理技术和发酵过程优化并实现自动化。研发适合我国市政固废和广大农村地区废弃生物质原料的固态厌氧发酵技术及特种小型设备是我国追赶国外先进技术、推广技术应用的便捷之路。
    关键词:固态厌氧发酵;沼气;预处理;工艺;工程
    中图分类号:Q815;TQ920.6 文献标识码:A DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1003-9015.2014.01.001
    Progress in Fundamental Research on Solid-State Anaerobic Fermentation Technology for Biogas Production and its Engineering Application

ZHANG Guang-yi, LI Wang-liang, ZHANG Ju-wei, YU Jian, WANG Yin, XU Guang-wen
    (State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China)
    Abstract: The progress in fundamental researches on solid-state anaerobic fermentation technologies aboveall, their important factors were reviewed. The methods of substrate pretreatment for producing biogas are emphasized. The status of related technology processes and some typical engineering projects of solid–state anaerobic fermentation were introduced and discussed. The results show that the efficiency of solid-state anaerobic fermentation greatly depends on process control as well as substrate pretreatment. Though recent research hotspots lie in thermophilic and two-stage processes, relatively more mature mesophilic one-stage
processes are still the primary choices in current engineering practices. Exploiting dynamics models based on biochemical reactions and cultivating special and high-efficient mycelia are the emphases of fundamental researches on solid-state anaerobic fermentation, however developing targeted pretreatment measures and realizing process optimization and automation control are more emphasized in application researches. A short cut for China to catch up with advanced solid-state anaerobic fermentation technologies and promote their application rests in researching and developing the solid-state anaerobic fermentation technologies and corresponding special small-scale equipments suitable for fermenting the biomass wastes in rural areas and municipal solid wastes.
    Key words: solid-state anaerobic fermentation; biogas; pretreatment; process technology; project

1 前言
    厌氧发酵技术在温和条件下利用厌氧微生物对生物质有机组分进行分解,产物有较高肥效,尤其是同步产生大量以高热值甲烷为主要成分的沼气可燃气并具有明显降低温室气体排放的潜力,被认为且由生命周期分析证实是最适宜、最有前景的生物质能源利用技术之一[1]。其中,固态厌氧发酵是指一定湿度的水不溶性固态基质在没有或几乎没有自由水存在下借助一种或多种厌氧微生物的一个生物反应过程。固态发酵与液态发酵的本质区别是以气相而非液相为连续相,具体表现在基质中游离水的多少[2]。因基质性质差异大,固体浓度分界点定义不一,以20%区分较典型[3]。
    相对液态厌氧发酵,固态厌氧发酵技术对原料适应性强,处理负荷大;设备投资较少、管理方便;过程能耗较低;产物后处理简单且基本无废水排放。随着高效前处理技术、特效菌种的研发以及过程控制技术的提高,传统过程存在的原料利用率不高、固废排放量大和工业放大可行性程度不高等问题逐步被克服,其优势和潜能越来越明显[2]。迄今在欧洲,固态厌氧发酵处理总固废量的10%,达430 万吨,超过液态发酵规模[4],产沼气超过167 亿m3。可见,固态厌氧发酵技术在发展中国家推广应用潜力巨大。

固态厌氧发酵生产沼气技术基础研发与工程应用进展

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